Palm Kernel Shells

Palm Kernel Shells

What is Palm Kernel Shells?

Palm Kernel Shells as biomass is a biological material derived from the milling of palm oil. As an energy source, this biomass can either be burned directly or converted into other energy products such as biofuel.

Biomass can be used to generate electricity with steam turbines & gasifiers or produce heat, usually by direct combustion or co-firing or, with the help from enzymes, be converted into renewable, low carbon sustainable fuels.

The biomass industry in Nigeria is not well developed and only a few operators in the industry.

The biomass power generating industry in the United States, which consists of approximately 11,000 MW of summer operating capacity actively supplying power to the grid, produces about 1.4 percent of the U.S. electricity supply.

The palm oil plant { Elais Guinensis}, considering its three different varieties Dura, Peripheral and Tenera, produces an edible fruit similar to an apricot which has inside a nut. During the crude palm oil process that fruit’s flesh is melted through a steaming treatment.

The residual nuts are further mechanically crashed shells are called palm kernel shell {PKS}, a virgin biomass with high calorific value {NCVAR typical abt 3,800 kcal/kg- ASTM D5865-02}.

Palm kernel shells has a very low ash and sulphur contents

  • Ash content {typical abt 3% weight – ASTM D 3174-02}
  • Sulphur content {typical abt 0.09% weight – ASTM D4239-02}
  • In the international trading of palm kernel shell {PKS}, the specification is listed below
  • Moisture: 1.7% max
  • Impurity: 2% max
  • Fiber: 5% max
  • Hard Shell: 90% minimum

Palm kernel shells can be considered like a natural pellet and an high grade solid renewable fuel for burning, as received both in co firing with steam coal or burned at biomass power plants, usually blended with other grades of biomass, like wood chips.
Palm kernel shell was partially a waste in 90’s and early 2000 considering more that 350,000 tons were available for sale but due to technological development, palm kernel shell are in high demand in the international market where they are used as fuel, road construction and other uses.
Palm kernel shells are versatile and have multiple uses; It can be used in its natural form for fuel at power stations, as a clean alternative to coal, to form activated carbon or to pave roads. We’re reducing emissions of EU power stations by encouraging them to burn biomass instead of coal,
Palm Kernel Shell can be processed into various dimensional grades to suit specific applications such as:-

  • Charcoal
  • Activated Carbon
  • Light weight aggregate for concrete
  • Fillings
  • Palm Kernel Shell is an ideal green fuel which substitutes the conventional fossil fuels such as coal. It can be used in:-
  • Industrial Boilers
  • Furnace & Foundries
  • Brick Kilns
  • Residential & Commercial Heating

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