Biomass Palm Kernel Shell

Biomass Palm Kernel Shell


Palm kernel nut which highly contains kernel oil will be cracked down to kernel and kernel shell.

The kernel will be extracted for kernel oil and kernel shell will be the by-product for this process.


Palm kernel shell has become one of the valuable commodities in the palm oil industry, many usage or application has been developed.

Due to the high calorific value of palm kernel shell, this commodity has been one of the key biomass materials in order to replace fossil fuel for steam power plant, however, due to more and more study conducted, it value has been elevated.

Carbonize Palm Kernel Shell can be used as charcoal which can be pressed into bio-fuel briquette, these forms of charcoal could be directly sold to the consumer such as BBQ or family use.  We also seeing part of the carbonize Palm Kernel Shell also being processed into activated carbon which uses in liquid and gaseous phase filtration or adsorption.

The more advanced study has carried out at university, the research reveals the advantage on palm kernel shell as a partial replacement for coarse aggregate in asphalt concrete.

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Palm kernel shell can be considered as pellet form because of its natural form, due to its high grade solid, high calorific value, low ash, and low sulfur content.

From biomass aspect, the calorific value 20100kJ/kg and solid form have become one of the most favorable biomass media.  It always mixes with EFB fiber n certain ratio to burn in the biomass boiler.


Ask any farmer in southern Nigeria which cash crop that has no useless part or derivatives puts cash in his pocket, and enriches the soil, he/she’ll probably say “Oil Palm.”

Oil Palm trees grow in the coastal belt in Nigeria which varies in depth from 100 to 150 miles and a riverine belt which follows the valleys of the Niger and Benue for a distance of about 450 miles from the sea. The main palm oil producing states include Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Edo, Cross River, Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Abia, Ekiti, Akwa-Ibom, Delta and Rivers.

Palm oil, a product gotten from the processing of fresh fruit bunch {oil palm tree} forms an important part of the local diet in Nigeria because animal fats such as milk and butter are hardly consumed. It is used both as a cooking material and as an ingredient in soups, sauces and a variety of local dishes. Consequently, there had long been a thriving market for palm oil both within the main areas of production in eastern and western Nigeria and between these regions and the non-palm oil-producing northern region.

Other product gotten from oil palm tree includes palm kernel oil and palm kernel cake can be gotten from the oil palm tree.

Palm kernel Shell {PKS} is gotten from the cracking of the palm kernel shell to release the nut after the palm oil has been extracted from fresh fruit bunch {FFB}.

The market for Palm kernel Shell {PKS} in Nigeria is well developed since the industries that require them as raw materials are not well developed in the country. Orders are usually from overseas buyers that require them as raw materials majorly in the production of biofuel and road construction.

The quality specification from an interested buyer is stated below

  1. Element Analysis (wt %)
  2. Moisture 15% to 20% (Maximum)
  3. Fiber 2% to 3% (Maximum)
  4. Foreign Matter 2% (Maximum)
  5. Hard Nut Shell 95%
  6. Kcal 3500 to 4000
  7. Industry analysis (wt %)
  8. Carbon (C) 52.95
  9. Hydrogen(H) 6.29
  10. Nitrogen (N) 0.52
  11. Oxygen (O) 38.51
  12. Sulfur(S) 0.07
  13. Packaging is usually in 50 Kg PP bags for easy containerization.

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